BCG_IO manual page
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bcg_io - convert graphs from and into the BCG format


bcg_io [ bcg_options_1 ] [ input_options ] input_filename [ bcg_options_2 ] [ output_options ] output_filename


This command takes as input a graph contained in input_filename and generates as output a graph in output_filename. This command is mostly used to perform format conversion, in the case where input_filename and output_filename are not encoded in the same graph formats.

The following ``input formats'' are currently implemented and available for input_filename:

- BCGBinary Coded Graphs format
- FC2ESPRIT project CONCUR2 format (INRIA, Sophia)
- SEQUENCECADP common trace format

The following ``output formats'' are currently implemented and available for output_filename:

- BCGBinary Coded Graphs format
- ASCIIASCII dump of the BCG format
- AUTOAUTO and MEIJE graph format (INRIA, Sophia)
- CWBConcurrency Workbench (LFCS, Edinburgh)
- ETMCCErlangen-Twente Markov Chain Checker
- FC2ESPRIT project CONCUR2 format (INRIA, Sophia)
- GMLGraph Modelling Language (Univ. Passau)
- GRAPHVIZDOT format of the GRAPHVIZ tools (ATT)
- LOTOSpseudo-LOTOS format
- MECMEC graph format (LaBRI, Bordeaux)
- PIPNPIPN graph format (LAAS, Toulouse)
- SCANSCAN format (BULL)
- SEQUENCECADP common trace format
- VCGVizualization of Compiler Graphs (Univ. Saarlandes)
- VISCOPEVISCOPE graph format (IRISA, Rennes)
- XESARXESAR graph format (LGI-IMAG, Grenoble)

Conversions are allowed from any input format into any output format.

When converting from the BCG format into a non-BCG output format, the dynamic library corresponding to input_filename may be generated if necessary.

When converting a non-BCG input format into a non-BCG output format, a BCG graph and its dynamic library may be generated as intermediate forms. This is normally transparent to the end-user.

Conversion from an input format to itself are allowed, but are useless except in the case of the BCG format: compression parameters (see below) can be modified this way.

General Options

Two groups of general options, bcg_options_1 and bcg_options_2, are currently supported.

Options bcg_options_1 can appear at the beginning of the command-line. These options are: -version, -create, -update, -remove, -cc, -tmp.

Options bcg_options_2 can appear on the command-line after input_filename. These options are: -uncompress, -compress, -register, -short, -medium, and -size.

See the bcg manual page for a description of these options.

Particular Options

bcg_io is very flexible with respect to options and file suffixes (i.e., file extensions). Options or file suffixes can be omitted, provided that there is no ambiguity. bcg_io does its best to guess the user's intentions and automatically supplies the missing options and suffixes.

An option can be omitted iff the file suffix is present and, reciprocally, a file suffix can be omitted iff the option is present.

If input_file is equal to ``-'', then it is considered to be the standard input. In such case, the option must be present.

If output_file is equal to ``-'', then it is considered to be the standard output. In such case, the option must be present.

Note: if the output option ``-'' is given for producing the BCG, FC2, or XESAR formats, the standard output of the bcg_io should be a regular file (not a pipe), because these formats require either that an explicit output file name is given (XESAR), or that the file can be accessed randomly using the lseek(2) system call (BCG and FC2).

For example, the conversion of an ALDEBARAN file into a FC2 file is normally done as follows:

bcg_io -aldebaran input_file.aut -fc2 output_file.fc2

but equivalent synopses are allowed, such as:

bcg_io -aldebaran input_file -fc2 output_file


bcg_io input_file.aut output_file.fc2

or (assuming that output_file.fc2 is a regular file):

bcg_io -aldebaran - -fc2 - <input_file.aut >output_file.fc2

If output_file is omitted and has only its suffix mentioned, it is assumed to be equal to inputfile. For example:

bcg_io filename.aut .fc2

is equivalent to:

bcg_io filename.aut filename.fc2

If the input and output files are both in BCG format, e.g.:


then the input file, if encoded using an old version of the BCG format, is systematically converted to the latest version of the BCG format and stored in the output file.

Finally, uncompressing or compressing a BCG file can be done as follows:

bcg_io -uncompress


bcg_io -compress -size 2 2 4

The following associations of options and filenames are currently available, for input and/or output:

-bcg input_filename[.bcg]
Read encoded in the BCG graph format.

-bcg [-parse | -unparse] output_filename[.bcg]
Write encoded in the BCG graph format. General options -uncompress, -compress, -register, -short, -medium, and -size can be used to control the contents of Options -parse and -unparse can be used to control label parsing in (see the bcg_write manual page for a technical discussion about label parsing). By default, or if option -parse is present, label parsing is enabled. If option -unparse is present, label parsing is disabled. If the input file is also in BCG format, options -parse and -unparse will have no effect, as the status of label parsing used in the input BCG file will be preserved in

-ascii [-small] output_filename[.ascii]
Write output_filename.ascii encoded in the ASCII dump format. If option -small is present, do not display the contents of the state area, the edge area, and the class area. By default, these areas are displayed.

-auto output_filename[.m0]
Write output_filename.m0 encoded in the AUTO graph format.

-aldebaran input_filename[.aut]
Read input_filename.aut encoded in the ALDEBARAN graph format (see the aut manual page for a description of this format).

-aldebaran output_filename[.aut]
Write output_filename.aut encoded in the ALDEBARAN graph format.

-cwb output_filename[.cwb]
Write output_filename.cwb encoded in the CWB graph format.

-etmcc [-format format_string] output_filename[.tra]
Write output_filename.tra encoded in the ETMCC graph format. If option -format format_string is present, it specifies the form under which floating-point numbers are printed to the output file See the bcg_min and determinator manual pages for a detailed description of format_string. By default, i.e., if option -format is absent, the default value of format_string is "%g".

-fc2 [-net number] input_filename[.fc2]
Read input_filename.fc2 encoded in the FC2 graph format. If option -net number is present, select the number-th automaton contained in input_filename.fc2. If option -net is not specified, number is given the default 0.

-fc2 [-verbose] output_filename[.fc2]
Write output_filename.fc2 encoded in the FC2 graph format. If option -verbose is present, use the verbose form of FC2 (by default, the compact form of FC2 is used).

-gml output_filename[.gml]
Write output_filename.gml encoded in the GML graph format.

-graphviz output_filename[.dot]
Write encoded in the DOT graph format of the GRAPHVIZ tools.

-lotos output_filename[.lotos]
Write output_filename.lotos in pseudo-LOTOS format.

-mec output_filename[.mec]
Write output_filename.mec encoded in the MEC graph format.

-pipn output_filename[]
Write encoded in the PIPN graph format.

-scan output_filename[.scan]
Write output_filename.scan encoded in the SCAN graph format.

-sequence input_filename[.seq]
Read input_filename.seq encoded in the simple SEQUENCE trace format (see the exhibitor manual page for a description of this format).

-sequence output_filename[.seq]
Write output_filename.seq encoded in the simple SEQUENCE trace format. Translating a graph to the SEQUENCE format is only possible if the graph has no circuits and if all its states (with the possible exception of the initial state) have at most one outgoing edge.

-squiggles output_filename[.graph]
Write output_filename.graph encoded in the SQUIGGLES graph format.

-vcg output_filename[.vcg]
Write output_filename.vcg encoded in the VCG graph format.

-viscope output_filename[.trans]
Write output_filename.trans encoded in the VISCOPE graph format.

-xesar [-old] output_filename[.gra]
Write output_filename.gra encoded in the XESAR graph format. Three auxiliary files (output_filename.dp3, output_filename.ge3, and output_filename.tai) are also generated. If option -old is present, use the old XESAR format (this format is now obsolete and does not work for graphs with more than 65536 states). By default, the new XESAR format is used.


The letters ``io'' in bcg_io stand for input/output.

Environment Variables

See the bcg manual page for a description of the environment variables used by all the BCG application tools.

Exit Status

Exit status is 0 if everything is alright, 1 otherwise.


Renaud Ruffiot, Hubert Garavel, Radu Mateescu, and David Jacquemin.


Acknowledgements are due to Patrick Ernberg (SICS, Sweden) for suggesting a conversion scheme to the CWB format.

BCG graph (input or output)

dynamic library (input or output)

ASCII dump (output)

AUTO graph (output)

ALDEBARAN graph (input or output)

CWB graph (output)

ETMCC graph (output)

FC2 graph (input or output)

GML graph (output)
GRAPHVIZ graph (output)

pseudo-LOTOS (output)

MEC graph (output)
PIPN graph (output)

SCAN graph (output)

SEQUENCE trace (input or output)

SQUIGGLES graph (output)

VCG graph (output)

VISCOPE graph (output)

XESAR graph (output)

XESAR graph (output)

XESAR graph (output)

XESAR graph (output)


``bcg_io'' binary program

``bcg_io'' static library #1

``bcg_io'' static library #2

See the bcg manual page for a description of the other files.

See Also

aut , bcg , bcg_min , bcg_write , determinator , exhibitor

Additional information is available from the CADP Web page located at

Directives for installation are given in files $CADP/INSTALLATION_*.

Recent changes and improvements to this software are reported and commented in file $CADP/HISTORY.


Please report bugs to

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