XTL-LANG manual page

Table of Contents## Name

xtl - language for value-based temporal logic formulas
## Description

XTL
(eXecutable Temporal Language) is a functional programming language interpreted
over LTSs (Labelled Transition Systems) encoded in the BCG (Binary Coded
Graph) file format. XTL can typically be used for implementing temporal
logic operators, by describing their fixed point semantics as iterative
or recursive computations over sets of states. More generally, XTL enables
one to perform any computation on a BCG graph: for instance, it can compute
the branching factor of a graph, print its list of labels, etc. XTL programs
are compiled and evaluated on BCG graphs by using the **xtl**
model
checker.
## LTS Model

An XTL program is evaluated over an LTS model generated
from a source program to be verified. This LTS, encoded in a BCG file, contains
the following elements:
## Syntax and Semantics of
XTL

The syntax of each XTL construct is defined by a BNF grammar and the
semantics is described informally. Terminal symbols are enclosed in double
quotes. Optional elements are enclosed in square brackets. Suspension points
are used to denote zero or more repetitions of an element. The meaning
of grammar symbols is given in the table below. The axiom of the grammar
is the non-terminal symbol *PG*. ### Lexical Elements

The lexical units of XTL are: *keywords*, *identifiers* and
*separators*. The keywords, listed below, must be written in lower-case letters.

### Internal and External Types

XTL is a strongly-typed language: every object
used in an XTL program must have a unique type, which is statically determined.
XTL does not provide a mechanism for type definition, although anonymous
tuple types (see below) can be implicitly created. The types allowed in
XTL fall into the following classes:
### Internal and External
Functions

The functions (also called *operators*) that can be used in an XTL
program fall into the following classes:
### Boolean Type and Functions

The Boolean type is named
### Integer Type and
Functions

The signed integer type is named ### Natural Type and Functions

The unsigned integer type is named ### Real Type and Functions

The floating-point number type is named
### Character Type and Functions

The character type is named ### String Type and Functions

The character-string type is named ### Raw Type and Functions

The ### Meta-types and Functions

The types *meta-types* because they refer to the LTS model
rather than to the objects defined in the source program to be verified)
denote the states, labels, edges, sets of states, sets of labels, and sets
of edges of the LTS, respectively. ### Number
Type and Functions

The BCG file format associates a unique number to every
state, label, and edge of the LTS. The XTL language provides the ### Action Type
and Functions

The XTL language has an action type associated to XTL expressions
that return no value but perform side effects. These are used to print data
values on the POSIX standard output stream (**stdout**). The table below gives
the predefined operators of type ### Anonymous Tuple Types

These types denote structures containing fields of
different types. The fields can be of any type (including anonymous tuples,
which enables nesting of tuples). These types are noted "(" *T0*"," ..."," *Tn*
")" and are essentially used in situations when several values must be
computed and returned simultaneously. The equivalence of tuple types is
defined structurally. The tuple values are noted "(" *E0*"," ..."," *En* ")" (see
EXPRESSIONS below).
### Expressions

The expressions allowed in XTL use the following
auxiliary constructs.
### Functions

The XTL language allows to define and use functions. The syntax
of function definitions is given by the grammar below: *F* having the parameters
*x1*, ..., *xn* of types *T1*, ..., *Tn*, the body *E*, and returning a result of type
*RT*. The calls of *F* have the form: *E1*, ..., *En* must be compatible (in number and types)
with the parameters of *F*. The result of the call is equal to the value of
*E* computed in a context in which the parameters *xi* are assigned the values
of *Ei* for all i between 1 and n. The body of *F* may also contain definitions
of local functions, placed either before *E*, or after *E* and the keyword
"*E*. Recursive
functions are allowed. Also, functions can be overloaded: several functions
with the same name, but different profiles, may be defined in the same
scope. In case of ambiguity of the type of a function call, the "### Macros

The XTL compiler allows
to define and use macros. The syntax of macro-definitions is given by the
following grammar: *M* having the parameters *P1*, ..., *Pn*
and the body <text>, which is a portion of text built using the characters
allowed by the XTL language (see LEXICAL ELEMENTS above). The calls of *M*
have the form: *Pi* have
been syntactically substituted with the arguments <texti>, for all i between
1 and n. The following syntactic restriction must be satisfied: the keywords
contained in each <texti> argument must be well-bracketed, i.e., if <texti> contains
a keyword opening an expression (e.g., "### Libraries

There
is also possible to include in the text of an XTL program external libraries,
typically containing definitions of temporal operators. The inclusion command
has the following syntax: **$CADP/src/xtl**.
Multiple inclusions of the same file are silently discarded, unless the
**-warning** option is passed to the compiler; in this case, appropriate messages
are issued.
### Directives

The XTL compiler allows to declare and use in an XTL
program data types and functions implemented externally in C. The directive
for an external type declaration has the following syntax: *T* is the identifier of the declared type and the optional pragmas
preceded by "!" refer to the C implementation of *T*: <C_type> is the identifier
of the C type implementing *T*; <C_compare> is an operator for comparing two
values of type *T*; <C_iterate> is a macro allowing to iterate over all values
of type *T*; and <C_print> is a printing function for values of type *T*. The
C names declared by these pragmas cannot be used directly in the XTL program,
but are used in the C code generated by the XTL compiler. The directive
for an external function declaration has the following syntax: *F* is the identifier of the declared function, *T1*, ..., *Tn* are the types
of its parameters, and *RT* is the type of its result. The optional pragma
"implementedby" declares the name <C_func> of the C function implementing
*F*. This C identifier cannot be used in the XTL program, but is used in the
C code generated by the XTL compiler. The external types and functions declared
using the directives above may be implemented in (one or more) C files
file1.c, ..., filen.c that must be included in the C code generated by the XTL
compiler. This is done using the following external include directive:

### Program

The syntax of an XTL program is given by the following grammar:
*E* is the body of the program. There may also be lists of
function definitions, external directives, macro definitions, and/or library
inclusions, placed in the front of the program or at its end, after the
"*FD1*, ..., *FDm+n* are visible in the
body *E* of the program, as well as in all their bodies.
## How to Create a XTL
File

At present, XTL files must be written by hand.
## How to Read a XTL File

At
present, there is one single CADP tool, **xtl**
, that reads and processes
XTL files.
## Bibliography

[MG98] R. Mateescu and H. Garavel. XTL: Meta-Language
and Tool for Temporal Logic Model-Checking. Proc. of the International Workshop
on Software Tools for Technology Transfer STTT'98 (Aalborg, Denmark). BRICS
Notes Series NS-98-4, pp. 33-42, 1998. Available from http://cadp.inria.fr/publications/Mateescu-Garavel-98.html
## See
Also

**bcg**
, **bcg_io**
, **xtl**
. ## Bugs

Please
report bugs to Radu.Mateescu@inria.fr

- a set of
*states*of the source program. A state is represented as a tuple containing the values of all the variables of the program (the so-called "state vector"). - a set of
*labels*performed by the program. An label is represented as a list of typed values. In BCG files generated from LOTOS programs, the labels have the form*G**v1*...*vm*(with m >= 0), where*G*is a gate name. - a
*transition relation*between the states of the program. A transition, represented as a triple (*s1*,*a*,*s2*), means that the program can move from state*s1*to state*s2*by performing a transition labelled with*a*. - the
*initial state*of the program.

+--------+-------------------------------+ | Symbol | Description | +========+===============================+ | K | constant | | x | variable | | T | simple type | | G | gate | | F | function | | M | macro | | P | macro parameter | | E | expression | | O | offer | | D | variable declaration | | RT | result type | | OP | operator | | FD | function definition | | MD | macro definition | | LI | library inclusion | | ETD | external type declaration | | EFD | external function declaration | | EID | external include directive | | ELD | external compile directive | | PG | program | +--------+-------------------------------+

`any` | `end_def` | `exists` | `of` |

`apply` | `end_exists` | `for` | `on` |

`assert` | `end_for` | `forall` | `then` |

`def` | `end_forall` | `from` | `to` |

`else` | `end_if` | `if` | `use` |

`else_if` | `end_let` | `in` | `where` |

`end_assert` | `end_use` | `let` |

The identifiers are grouped into two classes:

*external identifiers*denote the objects defined in the source program to be verified (these objects are contained in the BCG file). These identifiers may be written like the internal ones, as long as there is no clash between them and the normal identifiers or the XTL keywords. In the latter case, external identifiers must be preceded by a dollar character (e.g.,`$let`

) to avoid clashes.*internal identifiers*denote the objects defined in the XTL program (or predefined in the XTL language). These identifiers may be either*normal*, i.e., built from letters, digits and underscores (beginning with a letter or an underscore), or*special*, i.e., built from the characters #, %, &, *, +, -, ., /, >, =, <, @, \, ^, and ~. In normal identifiers, no difference is made between lower- and uppercase letters. The special identifiers are useful for mathematical and/or logical notations (e.g., '+', '/\', etc.).

The separators are sequences containing space,
tab, and newline characters, as well as *comments*, enclosed between `(*`

and
`*)`

.

*external types*are imported from the source program to be verified. These types are contained in the type area of the BCG file and can be referenced in XTL programs using external identifiers. Other externally defined types can be included in the XTL programs by means of special directives (see DIRECTIVES below).*internal types*are either predefined in the language, or defined by the user.

*external functions*are defined in the source program to be verified. They are contained in the function area of the BCG file and can be referenced in XTL programs using external identifiers.*internal functions*are either predefined in XTL (a list of the predefined functions has been given in the above paragraphs), or user-defined (see FUNCTIONS below for the syntax of function definitions).

In XTL, functions
can be *overloaded*, i.e., have the same identifier but different types for
their arguments and/or result. The XTL compiler resolves overloading statically
(i.e., at compile-time) or issues an error message if the context does not
permit to resolve overloading (in such case, the "`of`

" operator can be used
to supply typing information).

In XTL, a function *F* can be either *prefixed*,
i.e., its calls are written "*F* (*E1*, ..., *En*)", or *infixed*, i.e., *F* has two arguments
and its calls are written "*E1* *F* *E2*".

Most predefined functions are infixed,
except "`extract`

" and "`replace`

". For user-defined functions, the prefix or
infix nature is specified when the function is declared.

Also, unary minus
operators must be written in functional notation, i.e., `-(1)`

instead of `-1`

,
`-(X)`

instead of `-X`

, etc.

`boolean`

. The Boolean constants `true`

and `false`

are defined as 0-ary functions.
The table below gives the predefined functions for this type: +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | Operator | Meaning | +========================================+==========================+ | true, false : -> boolean | boolean constants | | not : boolean -> boolean | negation | | or, and, implies, | connectors and | | =, <> : boolean, boolean -> boolean | relational operators | | replace : boolean, boolean -> boolean | replacement operator | +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+The "

`replace`

" operator (which is overloaded for all types) takes two
arguments of the same type and returns the second one. It is useful for
use within the "`for`

" expressions (see EXPRESSIONS below).
`integer`

. Integer constants are
noted with a C-like syntax and should be preceded of a sign "`+`

" or "`-`

", e.g.,
`-123`

, `+123`

, `+0`

, etc. The table below gives the predefined functions for this
type: +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | Operator | Meaning | +========================================+==========================+ | -, + : integer, integer -> integer | binary minus, plus | | - : integer -> integer | unary minus | | *, div : integer, integer -> integer | multiplication, division | | mod : integer, integer -> integer | modulo | | ** : integer, integer -> integer | power | | integer : real -> integer | real to integer | | integer : character -> integer | character to integer | | <, <=, >, >=, =, <> : | relational operators | | integer, integer -> boolean | | | replace : integer, integer -> integer | replacement operator | +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+

`natural`

. Natural
constants are noted with a C-like syntax and should never be preceded of
a sign, e.g., `123`

, `0`

, etc. The table below gives the predefined functions
for this type: +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | Operator | Meaning | +========================================+==========================+ | -, + : natural, natural -> natural | binary minus, plus | | *, div : natural, natural -> natural | multiplication, division | | mod : natural, natural -> natural | modulo | | ** : natural, natural -> natural | power | | natural : real -> natural | real to integer | | natural : character -> natural | character to natural | | <, <=, >, >=, =, <> : | relational operators | | natural, natural -> boolean | | | replace : natural, natural -> natural | replacement operator | +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+

By default, an unsigned number `123`

denotes either a value of type `natural`

or a value of type `integer`

. Such overloading can be resolved explicitly
by the user (using an "`of`

" operator) or implicitly by the context (for
instance, in `(X + 123)`

, the type of `X`

will determine the type of `123`

). If
the context does not permit to resolve overloading, then the constant will
ultimately be given the type Natural. To summarize:

- `+123`

has the `integer`

type.

- `-123`

has the `integer`

type.

- `123 of integer`

has the `integer`

type.

- `123 of natural`

has the `natural`

type.

- `123`

has either the `natural`

or `integer`

type (with a final priority for
`natural`

).

`real`

. Real constants are noted with a C-like syntax, e.g., `3.1416`

, `-9.98E-6`

, etc.
The table below gives the predefined functions for this type: +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | Operator | Meaning | +========================================+==========================+ | -, + : real, real -> real | binary minus, plus | | - : real -> real | unary minus | | *, / : real, real -> real | multiplication, division | | ** : real, real -> real | power | | real : integer -> real | integer to real | | <, <=, >, >=, =, <> : | relational operators | | real, real -> boolean | | | replace : real, real -> real | replacement operator | +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+

`character`

. Character
constants are noted with a C-like syntax, e.g., `'a'`

, `'\n'`

, `'\012'`

, `'\x1A'`

, etc. The table
below gives the predefined functions for this type: +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | Operator | Meaning | +========================================+==========================+ | -, + : character, integer -> character | subtract, add integer | | character : integer -> character | integer to character | | <, <=, >, >=, =, <> : | relational operators | | character, character -> boolean | | | replace : | | | character, character -> character | replacement operator | +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+

`string`

. String
constants are noted with a C-like syntax, e.g., `"abc"`

, `"123"`

, `"Hello\n"`

, etc.
The table below gives the predefined functions for this type: +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | Operator | Meaning | +========================================+==========================+ | null : -> string | empty string | | length : string -> integer | string length | | extract : string, integer -> character | character extraction | | =, <> : string, string -> boolean | relational operators | | replace : string, string -> string | replacement operator | +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+

`raw`

type represents a byte string that denotes
a value of unknown type, i.e., whose type is not one of the other predefined
types. Raw constants are noted with a C-like syntax but using backquotes
rather than double quotes, e.g., ``foo``

, ``CONS (0, NIL)``

, or ``{0, 1}``

, etc. The table
below gives the predefined functions for this type: +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | Operator | Meaning | +========================================+==========================+ | null : -> raw | empty raw data | | length : raw -> integer | raw data length | | extract : raw, integer -> character | character extraction | | =, <> : raw, raw -> boolean | relational operators | | replace : raw, raw -> raw | replacement operator | +----------------------------------------+--------------------------+

By default, the string notation `"..."`

denotes either a value of type `string`

or a value of type `raw`

. Such overloading can be resolved explicitly by the
user (using an "`of`

" operator) or implicitly by the context (for instance,
in `(X = "foo")`

, the type of `X`

will determine the type of `"abc"`

). If the
context does not permit to resolve overloading, then the constant will
ultimately be given the type String. To summarize:

- ``foo``

has the `raw`

type.

- `"foo" of string`

has the `string`

type.

- `"foo" of raw`

has the `raw`

type.

- `"foo"`

has either the `string`

or `raw`

type (with a final priority for `string`

).

`state`

, `label`

, `edge`

, `stateset`

, `labelset`

,
and `edgeset`

(also called
The table below gives the predefined
operators over these types ("`set`

" denoting either `stateset`

, `labelset`

, or
`edgeset`

). These operators allow to explore (forward and/or backward) the
transition relation of the LTS, to combine sets of states, labels and edges,
and also to obtain information about the LTS.

+-----------------------------------+-------------------------+ | Operator | Meaning | +===================================+=========================+ | init : -> state | initial state | | succ : state -> stateset | successor states | | pred : state -> stateset | predecessor states | | out : state -> edgeset | successor transitions | | in : state -> edgeset | predecessor transitions | | =, <> : state, state -> boolean | comparison operators | | replace : state, state -> state | replacement operator | +-----------------------------------+-------------------------+ | visible : label -> boolean | visibility test | | string : label -> string | label to string | | =, <> : label, label -> boolean | comparison operators | | replace : label, label -> label | replacement operator | +-----------------------------------+-------------------------+ | source : edge -> state | transition source state | | target : edge -> state | transition target state | | label : edge -> label | transition label | | succ : edge -> edgeset | successor transitions | | pred : edge -> edgeset | predecessor transitions | | =, <> : edge, edge -> boolean | comparison operators | | replace : edge, edge -> edge | replacement operator | +-----------------------------------+-------------------------+ | empty, false : -> set | empty set | | full, true : -> set | full set | | comp, not : set -> set | complementation | | union, or : set, set -> set | union | | inter, and : set, set -> set | intersection | | implies : set, set -> set | implication | | iff : set, set -> set | equivalence | | diff : set, set -> set | difference | | includes : set, set -> boolean | inclusion test | | insert, remove : set, elem -> set | insertion, removal | | among : elem, set -> boolean | membership | | card : set -> number | cardinal | | =, <> : set, set -> boolean | comparison operators | | replace : set, set -> set | replacement operator | +-----------------------------------+-------------------------+For convenience, some of the operators above are overloaded (see FUNCTIONS below). Also, some of the set operators have synonyms (e.g.,

`union`

has the
synonym `or`

) allowing a more intuitive writing of boolean properties.
`number`

type for the manipulation of state, label, and edge numbers. The table below
gives the predefined operators of type `number`

. +------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | Operator | Meaning | +====================================+==========================+ | number_of_states : -> number | number of states | | number_of_labels : -> number | number of labels | | number_of_edges : -> number | number of edges | | number : state -> number | state number | | number : label -> number | label number | | number : edge -> number | edge number | +------------------------------------+--------------------------+ | -, + : number, number -> number | binary minus, plus | | *, div : number, number -> number | multiplication, division | | mod : number, number -> number | modulo | | ** : number, number -> number | power | | number : character -> number | conversion from/to | | character : number -> character | character | | number : integer -> number | conversion from/to | | integer : number -> integer | integer | | number : real -> number | conversion from/to | | real : number -> real | real | | <, <=, >, >=, =, <> : | relational operators | | number, number -> boolean | | | replace : number, number -> number | replacement operator | +------------------------------------+--------------------------+All arithmetic operators (except unary minus) and relational operators of type

`integer`

are also available for type `number`

. Moreover, the values
belonging to these two types can be freely mixed within arithmetic and
relational expressions. The main difference between these two types concerns
the manipulation of large numbers: the maximum value of type `integer`

is
`2^31-1`

= `2,147,483,647`

on 32-bit machines and `2^63-1`

= `9,223,372,036,854,775,807`

on 64-bit machines, whereas the maximum value of type `number`

is `2^32-1`

= `4,294,967,295`

on 32-bit machines and `2^64-1`

= `18,446,744,073,709,551,615`

on 64-bit machines.
Therefore, for large LTSs, any information concerning the LTS structure
(e.g., cardinality of state/edge/label subsets, depth/breadth of the LTS,
number of breadth-first levels, etc.) should be manipulated using values
of type `number`

instead of type `integer`

in order to avoid overflows.
Conversion
operators between the `number`

type and the types `character`

, `integer`

, and
`real`

are also provided. Constants of type `number`

are written in decimal
notation preceded by a `'#'`

character (e.g., `#4294967295`

). An alternative way
of representing constants of type `number`

that fit in the range of type
`integer`

is by means of the conversion operator from `integer`

to `number`

(e.g.,
the values `number(2147483647)`

and `#2147483647`

are the same).

`action`

(T may be any type).
The `print`

and
`printf`

operators behave differently on strings: `print`

prints the string
enclosed between double quotes and converts unprintable characters and
escape sequences to three-digit octal notation, whereas `printf`

does not
add double quotes and interprets execute sequences. For instance, ```
print
("Hello!\n")
```

displays `"Hello!\012"`

, whereas `printf ("Hello!\n")`

displays `Hello!`

followed by a line-feed. So, `print`

should be used to display string values
(e.g., label offers of the string type), whereas `printf`

should be used to
display messages.

+--------------------------------+---------------------------+ | Operator | Meaning | +================================+===========================+ | nop : -> action | inaction | | fby : action, action -> action | sequential composition | | print : T -> action | value printing | | printf : string -> action | string formatted printing | +--------------------------------+---------------------------+

- Offers
- An
*offer*is a construct allowing to match a value contained in a transition label. The offers have the following syntax:O ::= "?" x ":" T | "!" E | "_"

An offer "?"*x*":"*T*matches a value*v*iff*v*has the type*T*; in case of matching, the variable*x*is also assigned the value*v*. An offer "!"*E*matches a value*v*iff the expression*E*evaluates to*v*. An offer "_" (wildcard) matches a value*v*of any type.

- Result types
- The result types denote either
simple types, or anonymous tuple types. They have the following syntax:
RT ::= T | "(" RT0"," ..."," RTn ")"

These types may occur in variable declarations (see the next paragraph) as well as in function declarations (see FUNCTIONS below).

- Variable declarations
- The variable declarations have the following syntax:
D ::= x ":" RT | "any" RT | "(" D0"," ..."," Dn ")"

A declaration*x*":"*RT*defines the variable*x*of type*RT*. A declaration "any"*RT*, which is meaningful only inside a declaration of anonymous tuple type, defines a placeholder of type*RT*standing for a field of the tuple. Declarations of the form "any"*RT*can occur only in the "let" expressions (see below). A declaration "("*D0*"," ...","*Dn*")" defines a tuple whose fields are denoted by the variables and placeholders occurring inside*D0*, ...,*Dn*.

- Operators
- The operators occur in the "
`for`

" expressions (see below); they denote calls of binary functions on two arguments. They have the following syntax:OP ::= F | "(" OP0"," ..."," OPn ")"

An*F*operator denotes a call of the binary function*F*. An "("*OP0*"," ...","*OPn*")" operator denotes a call of a binary function on two arguments of tuple type; the result is a tuple whose fields are the results of the calls of*OP0*, ...,*OPn*on the corresponding fields of the arguments. There is a static semantics constraint on the operators*OP*: their left arguments must have the same types as their results.

The syntax of expressions is given by the following grammar:

E ::= K | F "(" E0"," ..."," En ")" | E0 "of" RT | E0 "->" "[" O0 ... On [ "..." ] [ "where" E1 ] "]" | "{" E0"," ..."," En "}" | "(" E0"," ..."," En ")" | "let" D0 "=" E0"," ..."," Dn "=" En "in" En+1 "end_let" | "if" E0 "then" E'0 "else_if" E1 "then" E'1 ... "else_if" En "then" E'n "else" E'n+1 "end_if" | "assert" E0"," ..."," En "in" En+1 "end_assert" | "use" x0"," ..."," xn "in" E "end_use" | "for" [ x0 ":" T0 [ "among" E0 ]"," ..."," xn ":" Tn [ "among" En ] ] [ "in" D ] [ "while" E'1 ] [ "where" E'2 ] "apply" OP "from" E'3 "to" E'4 "end_for" | "forall" x0 ":" T0 [ "among" E0 ]"," ..."," xn ":" Tn [ "among" En ] "in" En+1 "end_forall" | "exists" x0 ":" T0 [ "among" E0 ]"," ..."," xn ":" Tn [ "among" En ] "in" En+1 "end_exists" | "<|" OP "on" x0 ":" T0 [ "among" E0 ]"," ..."," xn ":" Tn [ "among" En ] [ "where" E' ] "|>" En+1 | "{" x ":" T [ "among" E0 ] "where" E1 "}"The semantics of expressions is described informally below.

K

- is a literal constant of a predefined type (see TYPES, FUNCTIONS AND CONSTANTS above).

F "(" E0"," ..."," En ")"

- denotes a call of the function
*F*on the arguments*E0*, ...,*En*. The arguments must be compatible (in number and types) with the formal parameters given in the definition of*F*(see FUNCTIONS below).

- denotes a call of the function

E0 "of" RT

- specifies that expression
*E0*has type*RT*. This mechanism allows to solve ambiguities that may be caused by function overloading (see FUNCTIONS below).

- specifies that expression

E0 "->" "[" O0 ... On [ "..." ] [ "where" E1 ] "]"

- is an expression of type
`boolean`

, called matching expression.*E0*must be of type`label`

or`edge`

. The construct between "`[`

" and "`]`

" is called an label pattern: it allows to match the content of the label denoted by*E0*(if*E0*is of type`label`

) or by`label`

(*E0*) (if*E0*is of type`edge`

), possibly extracting the values of its different fields. The optional construct "..." matches a sequence of zero or more values of any type.For convenience, in the verification of LOTOS programs, the first offer

*O0*(intended to match a gate) can be simply written*G*(i.e., without the "`!`

" sign).The variables contained in

*O0*, ...,*On*(if any) are visible in the optional expression*E1*, which must be of type`boolean`

.The XTL compiler examines the labels present in the BCG graph to check if there exist labels that correspond, in the number of fields and types of their fields, to the list of offers

*O0*, ...,*On*. If no such label is found, then the compiler issues a warning message (this is a form of*vacuity checking*).The compiler also uses the types of field labels to resolve overloading ambiguities (if any) in offers. For instance, the offer

`1`

in the label pattern "`G !1`

" will be considered of`integer`

if only integer values are passed on gate`G`

in the BCG graph on which the XTL program is evaluated.A matching expression matches a label

*G**v1*...*vm*iff: m = n if "..." is absent, or m >= n otherwise;*O0*matches*G*;*O1*, ...,*On*match*v1*, ...,*vn*;*E1*, if present, evaluates to`true`

in the context of the variables assigned in the offers. A matching expression evaluates to`true`

in case of successful matching of a label (in this case, all the variables contained in the offers have been initialized) and to`false`

otherwise.

- is an expression of type

"{" E0"," ..."," En "}"

- denotes a value of type set defined explicitly (i.e., by enumerating all
its elements). The expressions
*E0*, ...,*En*must all be of type`stateset`

,`labelset`

, or`edgeset`

.

- denotes a value of type set defined explicitly (i.e., by enumerating all
its elements). The expressions

"(" E0"," ..."," En ")"

- denotes a value of type tuple, containing n fields whose values are
given by
*E0*, ...,*En*.

- denotes a value of type tuple, containing n fields whose values are
given by

"let" D0 "=" E0"," ..."," Dn "=" En "in" En+1 "end_let"

- allows to declare and initialize variables. The types of the initialization
expressions
*E0*, ...,*En*must be compatible with the types corresponding to the declarations*D0*, ...,*Dn*. All the variables occurring in the declarations*Di*are initialized with the values of*Ei*, and are visible in the expression*En+1*. The "`let`

" expression also allows to extract the fields of tuple values and to assign them to variables.

- allows to declare and initialize variables. The types of the initialization
expressions

"if" E0 "then" E'0 "else_if" E1 "then" E'1 ... "else_if" En "then" E'n "else" E'n+1 "end_if"

- allows the conditional evaluation of expressions. The expressions
*E0*, ...,*En*must be of type`boolean`

, whereas*E'0*, ...,*E'n+1*must be of the same type (which is also the type of the "if" expression). The evaluation of an "if" expression proceeds as follows: the conditions*Ei*are evaluated (for 1 <= i <= n) and the value of the "if" expression is equal to the value of the first*E'i*for which*Ei*is true. If none of the conditions evaluates to true, the resulting value is given by*E'n+1*. If a condition*Ei*is a matching operator, the variables assigned by the offers inside*Ei*are visible only in the corresponding expression*E'i*.

- allows the conditional evaluation of expressions. The expressions

"assert" E0"," ..."," En "in" En+1 "end_assert"

- allows to stop the execution of an XTL program if a given condition
does not hold. The expressions
*E0*, ...,*En*must be of type`boolean`

. If all the assertions evaluate to`true`

, the value of the "assert" expression is equal to the value of*En+1*; otherwise, the execution of the XTL program is interrupted and an error message is displayed on the POSIX standard output stream (`stdout`

).

- allows to stop the execution of an XTL program if a given condition
does not hold. The expressions

"use" x0"," ..."," xn "in" E "end_use"

- uses the values of variables
*x0*, ...,*xn*without changing their value and then evaluates the expression*E*. The "use" expression allows to write XTL programs in which every variable defined is used, which avoids the warnings of the form "variable set but not used" issued during compilation of the C code generated by XTL. Although the usage of the "use" expression is harmless and does not impact in any way the evaluation of XTL expressions, it should be employed only in the (rare) situations where it is really needed.

- uses the values of variables

"for" [ x0 ":" T0 [ "among" E0 ]"," ..."," xn ":" Tn [ "among" En ] ] [ "in" D ] [ "while" E'1 ] [ "where" E'2 ] "apply" OP "from" E'3 "to" E'4 "end_for"

- allows the iterative evaluation of expressions. The
*iteration variables**x0*, ...,*xn*range over the iteration domains*T0*[ "among"*E0*], ...,*Tn*[ "among"*En*], respectively. The expressions*Ei*must be of type "`set of`

*Ti*": thus, iterations over sets of states, labels, or edges are allowed. There is an exception concerning integer numbers and characters: for these types, domains of the form "{"*E1*"..."*E2*"}", meaning all the integers (resp. characters) between*E1*and*E2*, are also allowed. The variables declared in the "in"*D*declaration (if present) are called*accumulators*. Both iteration variables and accumulators are visible in the expressions*E'1*,*E'2*(if present), and*E'4*, but not in*E'3*. The expressions*E'1*and*E'2*must be of type`boolean`

.Assuming that all the optional constructs are present, the evaluation of a "

`for`

" expression proceeds as follows. The accumulators are initialized to the value of*E'3*. Let us note*v*the current values of the accumulators (*v*may be of type tuple). Then, for each value of the iteration variables in their corresponding domains, the expression*v**OP**E'4*is evaluated and its result is stored in the accumulators. The value of the "`for`

" expression is equal to the value of the accumulators obtained after the last iteration. The "where" clause allows to perform only those iterations for which the expression*E'2*evaluates to`true`

. The "while" clause allows to stop the iterations when the expression*E'1*becomes`false`

.Particular cases of "

`for`

" expressions may be obtained by eliminating some (or all) of the optional constructs. If the iteration variables are absent, the "`for`

" becomes an infinite loop: in this case, the "`while`

" clause must be present in order to stop the evaluation. If the "`in`

" declaration is absent, the accumulator is implicit: it is used internally to store the results of intermediate iterations, but it cannot be used in*E'1*,*E'2*, nor*E'4*.The "

`for`

" expressions are useful for describing iterative computations. For instance, the expression below displays on the standard output the sequence of Fibonacci numbers smaller than 1000:for in (xn_plus_1, xn: integer, a:action) while xn < 1000 apply (replace, replace, fby) from (1, 1, nop) to (xn_plus_1 + xn, xn_plus_1, print (xn) fby printf ("\n")) end_for

- allows the iterative evaluation of expressions. The

"forall" x0 ":" T0 [ "among" E0 ]"," ..."," xn ":" Tn [ "among" En ] "in" En+1 "end_forall"

- is the universal quantifier. It is equivalent to the following "
`for`

" expression:"for" x0 ":" T0 [ "among" E0 ]"," ..."," xn ":" Tn [ "among" En ] "apply" and "from" true "to" En+1 "end_for"

The type of*En+1*may be either`boolean`

,`stateset`

,`labelset`

, or`edgeset`

. In the three latter cases, the`true`

and`and`

operators correspond to full set and set intersection, respectively (see TYPES, FUNCTIONS AND CONSTANTS above).

- is the universal quantifier. It is equivalent to the following "

"exists" x0 ":" T0 [ "among" E0 ]"," ..."," xn ":" Tn [ "among" En ] "in" En+1 "end_exists"

- is the existential quantifier. It is equivalent to the following "
`for`

" expression:"for" x0 ":" T0 [ "among" E0 ]"," ..."," xn ":" Tn [ "among" En ] "apply" or "from" false "to" En+1 "end_for"

The type of*En+1*may be either`boolean`

,`stateset`

,`labelset`

, or`edgeset`

. In the three latter cases, the`false`

and`or`

operators correspond to empty set and set union, respectively (see TYPES, FUNCTIONS AND CONSTANTS above).

- is the existential quantifier. It is equivalent to the following "

"<|" OP "on" x0 ":" T0 [ "among" E0 ]"," ..."," xn ":" Tn [ "among" En ] [ "where" E' ] "|>" En+1

- is an abbreviated form of the "
`for`

" expression, called*iterator*. It is equivalent to the following "`for`

" expression:"for" x0 ":" T0 [ "among" E0 ]"," ..."," xn ":" Tn [ "among" En ] [ "where" E' ] "apply" OP "from" init_OP "to" En+1 "end_for"

- Here
*init_OP*is a "start" value associated by default to the operator*OP*. Only the binary predefined operators that have initial values assigned by default can be used in the iterators. These operators, together with their initial values, are given in the table below (where "*set*" denotes either`stateset`

,`labelset`

, or`edgeset`

).+-----------------------------------+---------------+ | Operator OP | init_OP | +===================================+===============+ | or : boolean, boolean -> boolean | false | | and : boolean, boolean -> boolean | true | | + : integer, integer -> integer | 0 | | * : integer, integer -> integer | 1 | | union, or : set, set -> set | empty, false | | inter, and : set, set -> set | full, true | | diff : set, set -> set | full | | insert : set, elem -> set | empty | | remove : set, elem -> set | full | | fby : action, action -> action | nop | +-----------------------------------+---------------+

The iterators allow to express iterative computations in a form close to the mathematical notation. For example, the sum of the integer numbers from 1 to 100 may be computed with the following iterator:<| + on K:integer among { 1 ... 100 } |> K

Similarly, the number of transitions labelled with "SEND" labels may be computed as follows:<| + on T:edge where T -> [ SEND ... ] |> 1

- is an abbreviated form of the "

"{" x ":" T [ "among" E0 ] "where" E1 "}"

- is a set value defined by specifying a predicate
*E1*characterizing the elements of the set. This construct is also a particular case of "`for`

" expression:"for" x ":" T [ "among" E0 ] "where" E1 "apply" union "from" empty "to" "{" x "}" "end_for"

The implicitly defined sets allow to compute sets of states, labels or transitions in a form close to the mathematical notation. For example, the set of deadlock states (i.e., states having no successors) can be computed by the XTL expression below:{ S:state where succ (S) = empty }

- is a set value defined by specifying a predicate

FD ::= "def" F "(" x1 ":" T1"," ..."," xn ":" Tn ")" ":" RT "=" [ FD1 ... FDm ] E [ "where" FDm+1 ... FDm+p ] "end_def" | "def" "_" F "_" "(" x1 ":" T1"," x2 ":" T2 ")" ":" RT "=" [ FD1 ... FDm ] E [ "where" FDm+1 ... FDm+p ] "end_def"The first construct above defines a function

F "(" E1"," ..."," En ")"where the arguments

`where`

". These functions are visible only in the expression `of`

" expression
may be used to precise a unique type (see EXPRESSIONS above).
The second
construct above defines a binary infixed function *F* having the parameters
*x1*, *x2* of types *T1*, *T2*, and returning a result of type *RT*. The function
*F* behaves like an ordinary binary function, except that its calls may be
written either in the form *F* "(" *E1*"," *E2* ")", or in the form *E1* *F* *E2*. This
kind of functions allow to write expressions involving infixed operators
using a syntax close to the mathematical notation. For example, the predefined
function "`+`

" over integers is in fact an infixed operator: the user may
write either + (1, 2), or 1 + 2. The infixed operators (both predefined
and user-defined) are right-associative: e.g., the expression 1 + 2 + 3 is
parsed as 1 + (2 + 3).

Functions can be, of course, recursive (either directly, or transitively). For example, the recursive function below computes the factorial of an integer number:

def fact (n:integer) : integer = assert n >= 0 in if n = 0 then 1 else n * fact (n - 1) end_if end_assert end_defThis function also checks whether its argument is greater or equal to 0 using an "

`assert`

" expression; if this is not the case, the program execution
is aborted with an appropriate error message.

MD ::= "macro" M "(" P1"," ..."," Pn ")" "=" <text> "end_macro"The above construct defines a macro

M "(" <text1>"," ..."," <textn> ")"where the arguments <text1>, ..., <textn> are portions of XTL text. The result of the call is <text> in which all the occurrences of the parameters

`for`

"), then <texti> must also contain
the corresponding keyword closing the expression (e.g., "`end_for`

"). This also
applies to the non-alphabetic keywords such as "`(`

", "`)`

", "`[`

", "`]`

", "`{`

",
"`}`

". A macro is visible from the point of its definition until the end of
the XTL program. The macros may be overloaded: several macros with the same
name, but different arities, may be defined in the same scope.
LI ::= "library" <file0.xtl>"," ..."," <filen.xtl> "end_library"At the compilation of the program, the above construct is syntactically replaced with the contents of the files <file0.xtl>, ..., <filen.xtl>, placed one after the other in this order. The XTL compiler searches the included files first in the current directory, then in the directory referenced by

ETD ::= "type" T [ "!" "implementedby" "<C_type>" ] [ "!" "comparedby" "<C_compare>" ] [ "!" "enumeratedby" "<C_iterate>" ] [ "!" "printedby" "<C_print>" ] "end_type"where

EFD ::= "func" F "(" T1"," ..."," Tn ")" ":" RT [ "!" "implementedby" "<C_func>" ] "end_func"where

EID ::= "include" "<file1>", ..., "<filen>" "end_include"where <file1>, ..., <filen> are the names of the C source files (".c" and/or ".h") that must be included. This directive is translated into corresponding "#include" pre-processor commands in the C code generated by the XTL compiler. The compilation and linkediting of the C modules included may require specific parameters. These can be indicated to the XTL compiler using the following external compile directive:

ELD ::= "flag" "<C_compiler_directives>" "end_flag"where <C_compiler_directives> is a portion of command-line for invoking the C compiler (typically containing "-I", "-L", and "-l" options) that specifies the desired compilation parameters. This portion of command-line is used by the XTL compiler when creating the binary file of the generated C code. As an example, the XTL program below uses the CAESAR_ERROR() function for error handling, which is declared externally in the "caesar_standard.h" file and defined in the OPEN/CAESAR library libcaesar.a. Upon execution, the program will output the error message and stop.

include "caesar_standard.h" end_include flag "-I/common/Cadp/incl -L/common/Cadp/bin.sun5 -lcaesar" end_flag func error (string) : action ! implementedby "CAESAR_ERROR" end_func error ("Here occurs a fatal error. Farewell.")

PG ::= [ ( FD1 | ETD1 | EFD1 | EID1 | ELD1 ) ... ( FDm | ETDm | EFDm | EIDm | ELDm ) ] [ MD1 ... MDp ] [ LI1 ... LIr ] E [ "where" [ MDp+1 ... MDp+q ] [ LIr+1 ... LIr+s ] ( FDm+1 | ETDm+1 | EFDm+1 | EIDm+1 | ELDm+1 ) ... ( FDm+n | ETDm+n | EFDm+n | EIDm+n | ELDm+n ) ]The expression

`where`

" keyword. The functions defined by [GLMS13] H. Garavel, F. Lang, R. Mateescu, and W. Serwe. CADP 2011: A Toolbox for the Construction and Analysis of Distributed Processes. Springer International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT), 15(2):89-107, 2013. http://cadp.inria.fr/publications/Garavel-Lang-Mateescu-Serwe-13.html

Additional information is available from the CADP Web page located at http://cadp.inria.fr

Directives for installation
are given in files **$CADP/INSTALLATION_***.

Recent changes and improvements
to this software are reported and commented in file **$CADP/HISTORY**.

- Name
- Description
- LTS Model
- Syntax and Semantics of XTL
- Lexical Elements
- Internal and External Types
- Internal and External Functions
- Boolean Type and Functions
- Integer Type and Functions
- Natural Type and Functions
- Real Type and Functions
- Character Type and Functions
- String Type and Functions
- Raw Type and Functions
- Meta-types and Functions
- Number Type and Functions
- Action Type and Functions
- Anonymous Tuple Types
- Expressions
- Functions
- Macros
- Libraries
- Directives
- Program
- How to Create a XTL File
- How to Read a XTL File
- Bibliography
- See Also
- Bugs