CAESAR manual page
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Name

caesar - compilation & verification of LOTOS specifications

Synopsis

caesar [-aldebaran] [-analysis] [-bcg] [-cc options] [-comments] [-english] [-error] [-exec] [-exit] [-external] [-e7] [-e7old] [-force] [-french] [-functionality] [-gc] [-gradual] [-graph] [-indent] [-iso] [-map] [-monitor] [-more command] [-network] [-newstyle] [-nupn] [-oldstyle] [-open] [-root instantiation] [-safety] [-silent] [-simulator] [-trigger optimization] [-verbose] [-version] [-v3] [-v4] [-warning] filename[.lotos]

Description

caesar [Gar89b,GS90] is a compiler that translates a LOTOS specification into executable code that can be used to explore, on-the-fly or exhaustively, the graph (also called labelled transition system, reachability graph, state space, etc.) corresponding to the behaviour of this specification. caesar itself does not embody verification capabilities, but it smootly interfaces with many tools that can perform explicit-state and on-the-fly verification on the generated graph, including model checking, equivalence checking, and visual checking.

Taking as input filename.lotos, which contains a LOTOS specification, optionally accompanied by filename.h, which provides C types and functions implementing the LOTOS sorts and operations defined in filename.lotos, caesar performs successive transformation steps and produces a C program that allows to execute, simulate, and/or build the corresponding graph. In the latter case, the result of caesar is the graph itself, rather than the C program, which is removed after its execution.

When generated by caesar.adt , filename.h may include two files filename.t and filename.f if there are external sorts and/or operations declared in the LOTOS specification.

Refer to the lotos manual page for a detailed description of the conventions to be followed by filename.lotos, filename.h, filename.t and filename.f.

Options

-aldebaran
Generate output file filename.aut, which contains a graph in the AUT textual format. See the aut manual page for a description of this format. Not a default option.

-analysis
Analyze filename.lotos in order to detect errors and stop. The following phases are performed: syntactic analysis, static semantic analysis, restriction, expansion and generation. This option does not generate any output, except error diagnostics. Not a default option.

-bcg      
Generate output file filename.bcg, which contains a graph in the BCG (Binary-Coded Graphs) format. See the bcg manual page for a description of this format. Default option unless one of the following options is set: -aldebaran, -graph, -exec, or -open.

-bpn      
As of April 2014, this option was renamed into -nupn (see item #1828 in file "$CADP/HISTORY" for details).

-cc options
Pass options to the C compiler when it is invoked. options is a list of compiler options (enclosed in quotes or double quotes). These options are appended to the compiler options, if any, contained in the $CADP_CC environment variable (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES below). Not a default option.

-comments
Issue a warning message for each LOTOS sort or operation that is not properly labelled by a special comment of the form (*!...*). Not a default option.

-english
Print messages in English. Opposite of -french. This option overrides the $CADP_LANGUAGE environment variable (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES below).

-error      
A file, filename.err, is generated by caesar. It contains detailed error diagnostics. When it terminates, caesar displays the content of this file on the screen, using the $CADP/src/com/cadp_more command, unless -error option is set.

-exec      
Generate the kernel module filename.c to be used in the EXEC/CAESAR environment. Not a default option.

-exit      
Perform network reduction in order to replace all tau-transitions derived from a LOTOS enabling operator ">>" by epsilon-transitions, often leading to a smaller graph. This transformation preserves safety and trace equivalence, but neither strong, branching, nor observational equivalence. Not a default option.

-external     
Generate a file filename.c.proto containing skeletons for EXEC/CAESAR's gate functions, i.e., functions associated to all visible gates of the LOTOS specification. These functions are incomplete and have to be completed manually (at the places marked "...") with input/output operations so as to interface the LOTOS specification with its real environment. This option must be used together with the -exec option. Not a default option.

Note: if filename.c.proto already exists in the current directory, caesar will not overwrite it, because it might have been modified manually.

-e7      
Do not perform the new (BDD based) optimization E7, which removes dead transitions, still preserving strong equivalence. Alternatively, one may set the environment variable $CAESAR_BDD_TIMEOUT to impose a time limit on optimization E7, which will stop whenever this limit is exceeded, also preserving strong equivalence; see the caesar.bdd manual page for details. Not a default option.

-e7old      
Perform the old (explicit-state based) optimization E7 instead of the new (BDD based) optimization E7. Not a default option.

-force      
Force caesar to regenerate filename.c even if not necessary. This option is only meaningful if caesar is used with options -exec (EXEC/CAESAR mode), -open (OPEN/CAESAR mode), or -simulator. Not a default option. By default caesar will attempt not to regenerate filename.c if this file already exists in the current directory, and if it has been modified more recently than
(1) the corresponding LOTOS file (filename.lotos, filename.lot, or filename.l),
(2) than any LOTOS library transitively included (using the "library" clause) in this LOTOS file, and
(3) than any C file transitively included (using the "#include" clause) in filename.c itself.

-french
Print messages in French. Opposite of -english. This option overrides the $CADP_LANGUAGE environment variable (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES below). Even when this option is set, some warning and error messages related to lexical and syntactic analysis may still be displayed in English.

-functionality
Do not check functionality constraints (``exit'' and ``noexit''). Not a default option.

-gc      
Invoke the Boehm-Demers garbage collector to reuse the (potentially large) amounts of memory that have been allocated for abstract data types and that are no longer used. This option is especially suitable for LOTOS descriptions involving dynamic data structures, such as: lists, queues, stacks, etc. Not a default option.

-gradual
Apply the optimizations gradually when generating the network. By default, the optimizations are applied only after the network is fully generated. Using this option, the optimizations are applied to each sub-network generated from each operand of a parallel composition operator. This option is slower, but it can be useful for dealing with larger LOTOS descriptions and/or for generating smaller networks. Not a default option.

-graph      
Generate output file filename.gph, which contains a graph in a textual, undocumented format intended for debugging purpose; this format contains a lot of information but is expensive in disk space. Not a default option.

-indent
Do not format using the shell-script located in $CADP/src/com/cadp_indent the file filename.c.proto generated by option -external. Not a default option.

-iso      
Use the standard LOTOS semantics as defined in ISO/IEC International Standard 8807, disabling the various language enhancements mentioned in the section EXTENSIONS TO LOTOS of the lotos manual page and implemented in caesar. Not a default option. Not to be used when processing LOTOS specifications generated by lnt2lotos

-map      
Generate filename.map, which gives correspondence between sort and operation names occuring in filename.lotos and C type and function names occuring in filename.h. Not a default option.

-monitor
Open a window for monitoring in real-time the generation of a BCG graph (see option "-bcg" above). Not a default option.

-more command
Use command to display the error messages, instead of "$CADP/src/com/cadp_more", which is the default. command is a shell command (preferably enclosed in quotes or double quotes) containing the pathname of the chosen pager, possibly followed by a list of options. Not a default option.

-network
Generate output file filename.net, which contains an Interpreted Petri Net in a textual, undocumented format. Not a default option.

-newstyle
When generating skeletons for EXEC/CAESAR's gate functions (see -external option above), use the new-style function declarations (i.e., with prototypes) introduced in ANSI/ISO Standard C. This option must be used together with the -external option. Default option when option -external is selected.

-nupn      
Generate output file filename.nupn, which contains a Nested-Unit Petri Net in the NUPN format documented in the caesar.bdd manual page. Not a default option.

-oldstyle
When generating skeletons for EXEC/CAESAR's gate functions (see -external option above), use the old-style function declarations (i.e., without prototypes) available in Kerninghan and Ritchie C. This option is only applicable when gate functions are not overloaded, i.e., when each gate is always used with the same number of offers, and with offers of the same sorts and same directions (input or output). This option must be used together with the -external option. Not a default option.

-open      
Generate the graph module filename.c to be used in the OPEN/CAESAR environement. Not a default option.

-root instantiation
Ignore the behaviour expression following the behaviour (or behavior) keyword in the LOTOS specification contained in filename.lotos, and replace this behaviour by the one given by instantiation, which is a character string (preferably enclosed between single quotes) denoting a LOTOS process instantiation. This string may have the form 'P', or 'P [G1, ..., Gm]', or 'P (V1, ..., Vn)', or 'P [G1, ..., Gm] (V1, ..., Vn)', where P is either the identifier of the LOTOS specification or the identifier of a LOTOS process declared at the top-level of the specification (processes nested within another process are not accepted, and the specification identifier has precedence over a process identifier having the same name); where [G1, ..., Gm] is a list of gate identifiers that must either have the same number of elements as the list of formal gate parameters of P or be the empty list (in such case, it is replaced by the list of formal gate parameters of P); and where (V1, ..., Vn) is a list of LOTOS value expressions that must be algebraically-closed (i.e., contain no variables) and be compatible, in number and types, with the list of formal variable parameters of P. Not a default option. The particular case where instantiation is equal to the string '-' is accepted, but left undocumented.

-safety      
Perform network reduction in order to replace all tau-transitions by epsilon-transitions, often leading to a smaller graph. This transformation preserves safety and trace equivalence, but neither strong, branching, nor observational equivalence. Not a default option.

-silent      
Execute silently. Opposite of -verbose. Default option is -verbose.

-simulator
Generate the simulator program filename.c and stop, neither compiling, executing, nor removing this file. This option can be useful to port filename.c to another (e.g., more powerful) machine, on which the simulator program can be compiled and executed. Not a default option.

-trigger optimization
Print statistics about which optimizations cause a given optimization to become effective. This option is only useful for CAESAR's development. Not a default option.

-verbose
Print one line for each successive phase performed by caesar to inform the user about the progress of activities.

-version
Display the current version number of the software and stop. Not a default option.

-v3      
Do not perform optimization V3, which discovers variables whose values remain constant during the simulation phase, and replaces them by constants. Not a default option.

-v4      
Do not perform optimization V4, which evaluates statically guards whose value is constant and removes transitions whose guard is false. Not a default option.

-warning
Suppress all warning messages, keeping (more severe) error messages, at the risk of leaving undetected issues in the LOTOS specification. Not a default option.

Translation Phases

The architecture of caesar follows the principles exposed in [Gar89b] and Section 3 of [GS90]. The translation proceeds in several successive phases:
- syntax analysis phase
The LOTOS specification is lexically and syntactically analyzed using a scanner and a parser that have been generated by the SYNTAX tool of INRIA, which produces analyzers that emit pertinent error messages and perform, as much as possible, automatic error recovery. Incorrect LOTOS specifications are rejected; otherwise, an abstract syntax tree is built. This phase is shared with caesar.adt

- semantic analysis phase
The static semantics constraints of the standard LOTOS definition are checked on the abstract syntax tree. This is done in several steps: binding of processes, binding of gates, binding of types, analysis of type signatures, binding of sorts, binding of variables, binding of operations, and analysis of process functionality. The LOTOS specifications not matching these constraints are rejected. This phase is also shared with caesar.adt

- restriction phase
The additional static semantics constraints listed in the section "STATIC-CONTROL CONSTRAINTS" of the lotos manual page are checked, and the LOTOS specifications not satisfying these constraints are rejected. Also, warnings are emitted for the LOTOS processes that cannot be called from the entry point of the specification.

- expansion phase
The LOTOS syntax tree is translated into another syntax tree implementing SUBLOTOS, a simplified language derived from LOTOS. Translation is done by replacing certain LOTOS operators by semantically-equivalent forms, and finitely unfolding certain process calls to obtain a statically-fixed hierarchy of concurrent processes in which each gate, variable, and process identifier plays a unique role.

- type survey phase
If a file named filename.h exists, an auxiliary C program that includes this file is generated, compiled, and executed so as to obtain information on how LOTOS sorts are implemented in filename.h (which may itself include other files, such as filename.t or filename.f). This phase may fail if the contents of filename.h are incorrect or incomplete.

- generation phase
The SUBLOTOS syntax tree is translated into an interpreted Petri net extended with epsilon-transitions and typed variables that can be read or written on transitions, and hierarchically structured into nested units. This network model provides a compact representation of the control and data flows. During this phase, warnings are emitted when certain actions cannot be synchronized with a compatible action (i.e., same gate and same offer types), as this situation is likely to cause local or global deadlocks.

- optimization phase
The network model produced by the generation phase is simplified by applying a collection of transformations, each focusing on a particular aspect of the control or data flow. These optimizations preserve strong equivalence unless the -safety option is set. Certain transformations generate an auxiliary C program that is compiled and executed. The generation and optimization phases can be intertwined by setting the -gradual option.

- simulation phase
The optimized network model is translated into a C program called simulator. With certain options (e.g., -exec, -open, or -simulator), the translation terminates there. Otherwise, the simulator program is compiled and executed to explore all the reachable states of the network and store the corresponding graph in a file, using the format requested by the user. If the graph is large, the simulation phase may take a long time. Because each new state is kept in memory, the simulation phase should always terminate, either because the available memory is sufficient to contain all reachable states, or because memory gets exhausted before the entire graph has been explored; in such case, caesar tries to properly close the file under generation to leave it in a coherent state. However, the simulation may loop forever if one of the C functions defined in filename.h to implement LOTOS operations does not terminate.

Environment Variables

$CADP_LANGUAGE
If this variable is set, its value determines the language in which diagnostic messages will be reported. Possible values are 'english' and 'french'. Incorrect values will be ignored silently. If this variable is unset, it is given the default value 'english'.

$CADP_CC
If this variable is set, its value determines the name of the C compiler that will be invoked by caesar. See file $CADP/INSTALLATION_2 for detailed information about this variable. If this variable is unset, the script-shell $CADP/src/com/cadp_cc will automatically determine the C compiler to be used by default.

$CADP_TMP
If this variable is set, its value determines the directory in which temporary files are created. If this variable is unset, it is given the default value '/tmp'.

$PAGER
If this variable is set, its value will be used by the script-shell $CADP/src/com/cadp_more to display error and warning messages.

Exit Status

When the source is erroneous, error messages are issued. Exit status is 0 if everything is alright, 1 otherwise.

Authors

Hubert Garavel and Wendelin Serwe (INRIA Rhone-Alpes)

Operands

filename.lotos
LOTOS specification (input)

filename.h
implementation in C of data types (input)

filename.c
C code of the simulator (output of -simulator)

filename.c
C code of the graph module (output of -open)

filename.c
C code of the kernel module (output of -exec)

filename.c.proto
skeleton for gate functions (output of -external)

filename.aut
graph in AUT format (output)

filename.bcg
graph in BCG format (output)

filename.net
Interpreted Petri Net (output)

filename.nupn
Nested-Unit Petri Net (output)

filename.gph
graph in debugging format (output)

filename.err
detailed error messages (output)

filename.map
ADT correspondence table (output)

libname.lib
user ADT library (input)

For simplicity, the standard error stream is not used; all messages are written to the standard output stream, which is made unbuffered. The file filename.err is created at the beginning of execution and removed, if empty, at the end of execution.

Files

$CADP/lib/libname.lib
predefined ADT library (input)

$CADP/src/com/cadp_cc
C compiler shell

$CADP/src/com/cadp_more
pager shell

$CADP/gc
Boehm-Demers garbage collector (input)

$CADP/LICENSE
license file

$CADP_TMP/*.c
C code generated during type survey (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.c
C code generated during optimization (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.x
binary code for type survey (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.x
binary code for optimization (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.x
binary code of simulator program (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.inf
results of information phase (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.trt
contents of -root option (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.tsv
results of type survey (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.nupn
Nested-Unit Petri Net for optimization (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.oe7
results of old optimization E7 (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.ov3
results of optimization V3 (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.ov4
results of optimization V4 (temporary)

$CADP_TMP/*.ov7
results of optimization V7 (temporary)

Bibliography

[Gar89b] Hubert Garavel. Compilation et verification de programmes LOTOS. These de doctorat, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, November 1989. Available from http://cadp.inria.fr/publications/Garavel-89-b.html

[GS90] Hubert Garavel and Joseph Sifakis. Compilation and Verification of LOTOS Specifications. In L. Logrippo, R. L. Probert, and H. Ural, editors, Proceedings of the 10th IFIP International Symposium on Protocol Specification, Testing and Verification (PSTV'90), Ottawa, Canada. North Holland, pages 379-394, June 1990. Available from http://cadp.inria.fr/publications/Garavel-Sifakis-90.html

[GS04] Hubert Garavel and Wendelin Serwe. State Space Reduction for Process Algebra Specifications. In Charles Rattray, Savitri Maharaj, and Carron Shankland, editors, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Algebraic Methodology and Software Technology (AMAST'04), Stirling, Scotland, UK. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3116, pages 164-180, Springer, July 2004. Available from http://cadp.inria.fr/publications/Garavel-Serwe-04.html

[GS06] Hubert Garavel and Wendelin Serwe. State Space Reduction for Process Algebra Specifications. Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 351, num. 2, pages 131-145, February 2006. Available from http://cadp.inria.fr/publications/Garavel-Serwe-06.html

See Also

OPEN/CAESAR Reference Manual, aut , bcg , caesar.adt , caesar.bdd , caesar.indent , caesar.open , lotos , lnt2lotos

Additional information is available from the CADP Web page located at http://cadp.inria.fr

Directives for installation are given in files $CADP/INSTALLATION_*.

Recent changes and improvements to this software are reported and commented in file $CADP/HISTORY.

Bugs

Please report new bugs to cadp@inria.fr


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