LPP manual page
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lpp - LNT pre-processor


lpp [-version] [-silent | -verbose] [-force] [-more command] [input[.lnt]] [output[.lnt]]


lpp is a pre-processor that operates on LNT code. lpp was designed to be used in conjunction with lnt2lotos, which translates LNT code into LOTOS and expects to have its input previously expanded by lpp.

lpp was developed to palliate the fact that the LNT language supports notations for literal constants (such as numbers, characters, strings, etc.) that do not exist in LOTOS. lpp expands such notations into lower-level algebraic terms that are compatible with the LOTOS syntax. These terms use the algebraic sorts and operations contained in the LNT_V1 predefined library of CADP.

To ensure that the input file will not be overwritten, lpp stops if the output file is the same as the input file.

To avoid clashes between generated files and user-written files, lpp writes a special tag at the end of each generated file. This tag is a comment containing the name and the version of lpp that generated the file. lpp uses this tag for two purposes:


Execute silently, reporting only errors. This is the opposite of -verbose. The default option is -verbose.

Report activities and progress, including errors, to the user's screen. This is the opposite of -silent. The default option is -verbose.

Display the tool version and exit.

Overwrite the output file, even if it was edited by the user or does not need to be updated.

-more command
Use command to display the error messages, instead of "$CADP/src/com/cadp_more", which is the default. command is a shell command (preferably enclosed in quotes or double quotes) containing the pathname of the chosen pager, possibly followed by a list of options. Not a default option.

Environment Variables

The target directory of the output file. This environment variable has no effect if an output file argument is supplied.

Exit Status

If no error occurred, 0, otherwise 1.


David Champelovier, Hubert Garavel, Yves Guerte, Wendelin Serwe, Gideon Smeding (INRIA Rhone-Alpes)

See Also

caesar.adt , caesar , lotos , lnt.open , lnt2lotos , and the "Reference Manual of the LNT to LOTOS Translator" available from http://cadp.inria.fr/publications/Champelovier-Clerc-Garavel-et-al-10.html

Additional information is available from the CADP Web page located at http://cadp.inria.fr

Directives for installation are given in files $CADP/INSTALLATION_*.

Recent changes and improvements to this software are reported and commented in file $CADP/HISTORY.


Please report any bugs to cadp@inria.fr

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